Section 108 of the Copyright Act permits libraries and archives to make certain uses of copyrighted materials in order to serve the public and ensure the availability of works over time. Among other things, Section 108 provides limited exceptions for libraries and archives to make copies in specified instances for preservation, replacement and patron access. Section 108 was enacted as part of the Copyright Act of 1976, then amended in 1998 by the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and the Copyright Term Extension Act, and in 2005 by the Preservation of Orphan Works Act.
- View Section 108 of the Copyright Act
- View Copyright Office Circular 21: Reproduction of Copyrighted Works by Educators and Librarians (PDF, 102KB)
- View Overview of Section 108 (Word, 162KB)
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